Sunday, 3 March 2013

Vegetation Maps of Turkey

Vegetation Maps of Turkey

Turkey, one of the world's richest countries in terms of the host plant species. More than 9,000 plant species are present in our country, the high mountain meadows, some tropical plants, steppe, coniferous and broad-leaved forests are a wide variety of plant communities. Our country has never found elsewhere in the world (endemic) plant species are an important part of our existence in the plant. Some of the factors in making our country so diverse plant species have a significant impact.

At the beginning of these factors, of course, is climate. With its location at the various climatic conditions in our country, the climate conditions, has enabled the growth of different plant species, climate, temperature and rainfall and sunshine duration elements, the plants are very effective in raising. For example, there are a lot of sunny days in the summer, especially in the Mediterranean Region, sunshine, loving, drought-tolerant shrubs occupies a wide space. In contrast, the Eastern Black Sea Region foggy - cloudy-loving spruce, boxwood, such as nuts, plants grow. Climate elements and the distribution of rainfall in the growth of plant communities carve an important role. Plants, water requirements vary depending on the areas of rainfall regimes, different species show a distribution case. For example, a collection of shrubs located in the bay »arbutus, such as oleander plants are drought-tolerant Mediterranean region grow.

In contrast, demand for water is high in areas with plenty of water in a plant, and the plane is usually lower than 1000 PASSED grow. In our country, the distribution of vegetation diversity and other factors that impact on the elevation. Geological structure and surface topography. Altitude, a factor limiting the scope of the plants life. Because the altitude increases, the air, water vapor and temperature decreases after a certain amount of precipitation falling in an elevation. Accordingly, the different heights of different plants grow. A station for plants and soil nutrient source distribution effect on the physical and chemical properties of the plants. For example, some plants, special soil conditions grow.

Pine nuts, beef is very sandy soils as a result of the separation of volcanic stones. For this reason, appropriate soils with pine Aydin and Nur Mountains of Manisa grows naturally with the surroundings. Spruce is a plant of Mediterranean origin. Yesilirmak the valley of the Red River and the Black Sea region grows locally in some secluded areas. However, the olive is a Mediterranean plant can be grown in areas sheltered valley of the river Coruh Artvinde.


1 - Plants animal food source.
2 - Plants provides the formation of soil erosion and floods.
3 - The drug is made from plants.
4 - organisms feeding and the amount used in the production of certain goods and merchandise.
5 - Plants are found in various communities (forest, shrub, grass, etc.)
6 - In Turkey, more than 12,000 plant species, so the world has a very rich country in the equatorial region.
7 - in different climatic regions of our country, plants barındırır.Relikt (residue) Plant: 4.Zamandaki viable climate warming during the reign of the glacier high in the mountains today, parts of the circuit of the old plants that thrive in cold areas. In our country, the fourth geological time effect on the distribution of plant communities in the climate change climate olmuştur.Karadeniz plants in Mediterranean climate regions of the Mediterranean climate zone in the Black Sea climate plants to take place in this way. Located in the Mediterranean region: beech, yew, beech trees, such as nuts and relic communities. In our country, about one-third of the plants occurred before the emergence of modern climatic conditions, the residual plants.

Endemic plants on Earth are called plant communities that grow only in a particular region. Show great diversity in the ways of the country and in the past often led to a significant enrichment of climate change in terms of endemic species occur. However, that grows in warm climates, but warm south-facing slopes of the Taurus Mountains in Turkey are able to find habitat plants. The third time, some of the plants during the period covering large areas in the patterns of change and the influence of climatic conditions in some areas have survived to the present day. Takes place in the mountains and karst pits Davras Pulley Dedegöl oak, sweetgum trees around Lake Koycegiz, goat and Datca Datca peninsulas palm, the mountain of Kaz Kaz Mountain fir, oak Ispir Kastamonu and around Yozgat grows.

Wide Leaves: beech, chestnut, oak, ash, linden, poplar
Conifers: spruce, fir, pine, black pine, red pine

OUR COUNTRY IS RICH will depend on the vegetation;

Climate impact: the Black Sea, while the slopes of the mountains-broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest is high in the mountains in the Black Sea. Mediterranean drought-resistant plants, there are inland steppes. The effect of landforms: mountain forests on the slopes of the northern and southern belts are different. Example: Mountains north of K.Anadolu humid and temperate broad-leaved below, above, is the coniferous forest. To the south of the mountain who want the same drought-resistant water-wise plants grow more sunlight. However, due to the increase in elevation, vegetation varies. Example: up to 1000m in the Taurus Mountains, pine forests, growing up who want to drought, cold-resistant cedar forests then görülür.Toprak and Effect of Main material: plant nutrients and root development characteristics different from the request. Some plants chalky lands, some plants prefer a soft and sandy parent materials. Salty soil, pine, Scots pine and grow, they grow in sandy soils.

Human impact: In our country, to the development of civilizations from time immemorial, the vegetation has been destroyed too. Mediterranean pine forests, shrub communities have taken place, the location of forests, steppes from internal and D.Anadolu.

Climate changes: 4 Geological time, cold and a little rainy period, the plants growing in Europe and Siberia, has spread in Anatolia. The plants that grow in warm and humid Mediterranean climate cycle has progressed to the north of Anatolia. There are some plants grown in our country based on past climate conditions. This feature of our country, which is already grown plants disappear entirely prevented. Therefore, in our country plants belong to one third of the plant residue. Endemic plants called plants anywhere in the world.

FORESTS: broad-leaved forests, coniferous, sometimes divided into groups, such as mixed forest. These forests according to different climate and soil conditions in our region yetişir.1) BLACK FORESTS:

This region is located in two different forest zone. The first is humid and temperate climate that grows along the coast of the Black Sea broad-leaved forest, the second coniferous forest that grows high in the mountains are cold and damp climate. The most important feature of forests in the Black Sea region, is more tree species. Reason for convenient climate. D.Karadeniz half of the plant species in the country is seen. (6 thousand kinds)

a-broad-leaved forest: from the mountains of the east, west, Georgia to the limit of stars up to 1000m on the northern slopes of mountains is located in the section. They shed their leaves in winter. This forest zone, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, linden, maple, elm, oak, alder and ash tree species bulunur.Ormanlardaki species, sometimes single, sometimes shows the mass distribution. Stars mountains, oak, beech, hornbeam are common. Western and central Black Sea zone, chestnut, beech and hornbeam are common. Beech wood coating and kullanılır.Doğu especially mobilyacılıkta and K. section, however, is dominated by alder forests. Slopes, linden, chestnut and beech woods are available.

Tropical broad-leaved forests

Under the beech forests of the region are shrubs or bushes. These shrubs, forest rose, hazelnut, mountain ash, hornbeam, dogwood and boxwood creates. Rhododenron more. Dominated by western and eastern parts of the Black Sea.

Black Sea region, the forests, the trees rarely are monumental. Example: Western K. bodied in the town of Yenice (Strandja fruit) are available. In addition, the badger, and hazelnut trees are seen. This is to protect trees Yenice environment, has been declared as a nature conservation area. Istanbul and Kocaeli Catalca the need for firewood and the surrounding oak forests platolarındaki and stars in the mountains meet Demirköy.

b-Mixed forests: the Central and Eastern parts of the northern slopes of the Black Sea is between 1000-1500m. Broad-leaved trees, beech, fir and Scots pine trees can be found yapraklılardan needle.

c-coniferous forests: the higher parts of the mountains are seen between 1000-2000. Divided into two.

1) the Army's west pine, fir, and comprising karaçamlardan.

2) D.Karadeniz in forests dominated by spruce.

In addition, fir, pine, pure spruce forests, Ardanuç and more foggy and rainy in the eastern Black Sea is yaygındır.Yazın Savsat around different in terms of vegetation, creates an environment. Misty-loving trees are common.

K.Anadolu southern slopes of the mountains, forest cover change features. Kaçkar, Ilgaz, Bolu and southern slopes of the mountains, sun-loving Koroglu is dominated by pine forests. Bolu, Kastamonu Gerede and the black pine forests are common. Low grooves Erbaa floors, Niksar groove, Gökırmak and the lower slopes of the pine forests of the southern valleys are covered with Devrez.

Note: One of the most important features of the Black Sea region in terms of vegetation is rich in grass communities.

2) WESTERN ANATOLIA FORESTS: Western Anatolia, depending on the elevation and maintenance of the ecological characteristics of the effect seen in three different forest community.

a-red pine forests: Coastal site with up to 600-800m'ye ormanlardır.Sıcaklık the request is greater than coniferous, drought dayanıklıdır.Kızılçam ağaçtır.Ege grows best in Mediterranean forests yetişir.Bu up the coast in the Aegean until 600 800m'ye common. Yaygındır.Edremit shrubs grow in the forests of red pine areas, and the southern Marmara coast of Burhaniye-Havran has extensive olive groves.

b-pine forests: Text, cool and sunny, snowy winter, so yetişir.Bu environments; Dursunbey high mountainous areas, Smith, Butler, and Kütahya environment, Bozdaglar, Aydin and black pine forests in the mountains of the hinge of the space. Kaz Mountains, covers a very wide areas. (Kozak / Bergama) and Kaçarlı (Aydın), circa pistachio pine forests on sandy soils takes place.

c-Oak Forests: the mountains and the lower levels seen in the Western Anatolian plateau.

d-beech forests: the Marmara Region Samanli, Uludag, Domanic Kapıdağı and Kazdağı north-facing slopes, as well as the Inner West And. Şaphane and Murat Mountain, north-facing slopes of the type görülür.Sebebi olması.Uludağ moist air in the vertical direction is more than one generation of forest. Uludag north and chestnut at the bottom of shrubs at the top of oak, beech, fir and larch were found in the south, from bottom to top, red pine, oak, larch and pine forests are seen.

3 - MEDITERRANEAN FORESTS: a) forests in the Mediterranean coastal zone: the coast, the Taurus Mountains, 1000 m up to the side, drought-resistant pine forests are common. Red pine, wet areas will grow faster, so the country's fastest-growing forest. Resin is more easy for the lights. For this reason, seen in the forests of ponderosa forest fires. Koycegiz lake, around the body of the oil extracted and used in the cosmetic industry is located in the forests of sweet gum tree. They grow only in Turkey.

b) Mediterranean orogenic belt forests: red pine forest belt goes up to 2000m on. This field, larch, cedar and köknarlardan of its occurrence is dominated by coniferous forests. Cedar forests of the Mediterranean mountain belt covers a wide field. These east, Maras (Stable Mountain) Play begins in Denizli mountain extends to the west. Timber is very precious. I used cedar wood temples, palaces made. For this reason, these forests have been destroyed too.

Taurus fir forest in the Mediterranean mountain belt creates another. Nur Mountains in the east and in Burdur (parishes) is located between. They are located on the northern slopes do not like sunlight.

Larch forests: are common in the higher parts of the Taurus Mountains. Adana Province in the northwest, and the Teke peninsula, around Beysehir görülür.Kerestesi lush forests of black pine is valuable furniture, doors and windows used in the construction.

Oak forests: Beyşehir and Eğirdir Nur mountain lakes with the surroundings and is very common among K.Maras-Pazardzhik. Pulley only in our country, oak, mountain Davras grows. Juniper cedar and black pine forests of the Taurus mountains where there are communities. Juniper Lake Plateau region Taşeli Teke peninsula, and Marash communities are seen.

Nur higher parts of the mountains, and north-facing slopes of the Gulf of Iskenderun broad-leaved beech, oak and hornbeam forests are seen. In these forests of the Black Sea, pine, nuts, yew, linden and maple are available.

4) EASTERN AND CENTRAL ANATOLIA FORESTS: The regions of relatively kuraklılığa and cold-resistant trees grow in forests. These forests are lush, but is rare. The main forests in these areas, oak, larch, and ardıçlardan occurs. Central and Eastern Anatolia is dominated by oak forests.

Eastern Anatolia: lush oak forests, Tunceli, Pötürge, Bingöl common in the vicinity of the Taurus Mountains and the South East. The majority of these forests, in order to provide firewood cut. Therefore, continuous oak forests are being destroyed.

Central Anatolia: the northern slopes of the Taurus mountains, especially between 1000-2000m and K. Anatolian Mountains are oak forests on the southern slopes. This is the upper slopes of the mountains larch, larch and oak skirts is correct is a mixed forest. Akdag mine in the north, mountains, pine forests, is located between Erzincan-Refahiye.

Southeastern Taurus Mountains; Pistachio Plateau, Mardin (Mazıdağı) and oak forests around Karacadağ common.

Forests of the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Gaziantep, Kilis-between Spruce, wild pistachio nuts are grown and their aşılanmasıyla. Olive around Kilis, Siirt mountains are pine communities.


1 - Wood and timber provides our needs.

2 - Downhill slopes prevents soil erosion

3 - responds to all kinds of recreation time requirements.

4 - the defense of the country, provides convenience in various ways.

5 - and especially the hunting of wild animals contains.

6 - Precipitation underground water cannons, in sources of these buildings makes out.

7 - provides the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air.

Note: There are three basic principles of forestry to benefit from continuous forests.

a-forest expansion

b-continuous protection

Operation of c-

We collect the benefits of the forests under the hood of her.


Wrapped in the form of sloping land areas, forests, soil, knitting wear. With its roots deep infiltration of water released into the soil layer, the small channels and generate the fields falling rain forest soil and from there into groundwater seeps, streams and regains resources.

Another important part of forests in nature is that the circulation of nutrients. The soil falling branches and leaves; dönüşür.Organik matter organic matter by bacteria in the soil nutrient for plant growth by increasing the vegetation provides better. On the other hand mixing the soil organic matter in the soil creates a porous structure allows the penetration of precipitation ground.


Forest recreation areas and national parks, are important resting places. Kurulmuştur.Bunlar national parks in our country in recent years, the rural Yozgat, Kaçkar Adana (cold water), Kizilcahamam, Bird Sanctuary, Uludag, Seven Lakes, Dilek peninsula (Turkey). Spil Mountain,

Kızıldağ (Yalvaç), Termosos, Canyon, Olympos Bey Mountains, Altinbesik cave (Antalya) bucket (Isparta), Coral valley, Macka, Altındere, Hatilla valley, Beyşehir, Karagöl, Nemrut Dagi (Adiyaman), Commander in Chief (Uttaranchal), Honaz Mountain (Denizli)


Approximately 6-8 million m3 of firewood and timber from forests üretilir.Yılda timber is obtained. These construction, paper production, packaging industry, mines, support, Post Office, and is used as a pillar of moving energy lines. In addition, from pine resin, chemical industry, dyestuff used in construction.

Yapılır.Odunu wood and timber production forests in a large part of the forest enterprises as fuel for heating houses kullanılınır.Evlerin one-fifth of the energy to heat the wood is provided.

Forests., Except for parks, protected forests and productive enterprise is required. Our forests are an important source of income for villagers who live in the forest and forest edge. Two-thirds of villages in the forest, and one-tenth of the edge of the forest yararlanmaktadır.Bu kurulmuştur.Nüfusumuzun business that provides citizens with the direction of the natural resource forests.


Under the influence of the Mediterranean climate of the coastal regions of plant community of people destroyed the forest belt in place. Is defined as the maquis shrub or bush. There are hundreds of varieties. (Rosary, Sandalwood, oleander, wild olives, Strawberry Tree, locust, etc. are some.) Maquis seen in all the coasts. But the kinds of steps and changes in elevation towards the north to the southern coasts. (Latitude effect), the Mediterranean, the Aegean s 800-1000m 300m 500-600m s overtake the Sea of ​​Marmara. Garig called the Liar is located in the Black Sea, Maki.


Semi-arid climatic conditions where the tree is not suitable for growing herbaceous, shrub small collections of spinose. Communities with lush green grass in the spring of this summer drought in arid and arid shrub community and becomes pale. The inner regions at low (trough) places in areas of coniferous forests on the slopes of the mountain spreading leaves increased rainfall in the steppes. Central Anatolia, where a lot of people because it would not be more than the destruction of the forest as a result of the transition zone between areas with isolated trees, which consists of former forest steppes turned into Anthropogen. Eastern Anatolia, high plateaus in arid steppe type to live without a summer stay green. So here is common in cattle pasture farming.

D - mountain meadows (alpine meadows)

Type of forests flourishing in hard to reach altitudes as cold and damp in the winter under the snow at the remaining part of the high places of the summer, cold-resistant grass topluluklarıdır.Erzurum kars yağışlarına depending on the animal head supports Frequently


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